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Appart from sums, substractions and some more functions, AppleScript doesn't include much built-in mathematical functions.
However, we have some great osaxen extending AppleScript's math dictionary, such as Satimage or Calculation.
Also, we can use lots of applescript libraries for trigonometry, algebra, etc. Some of them are available here, in our ScriptBuilders section. And some of them are all around the web: Deivy Petrescu's Matem├?┬ítica modules, Richard Morton's routines at The FooDoo Lounge... And lots of tools and tips at Apple's AppleScript-Users List Archives, directly from the hand of the greatest AppleScript experts.
Finally, you can use other scripting languages for your maths via the do shell script command, which opens a good way for powerful engines, such as Perl or Python.